For much of the year, aphid colonies consist of wingless females that give birth to live young. Winged forms develop when overcrowding, deterioration in the host plant or seasonal changes induce a move to another plant. Most aphid species overwinter as eggs but some can remain as active aphids, particularly in mild winters or on indoor plants.
Many aphids, especially those on fruits and vegetables, go through an annual cycle that involves two or more host plants. The plant on which overwintering eggs are laid is usually a tree or shrub. In the spring, the eggs hatch and the aphids feed on the young foliage. By early summer, the foliage has grown older and tougher, this combined with increasing temperatures and day-length induces winged forms of the aphid that migrate to the summer host plant. This is usually a non-woody plant with soft, succulent foliage. Some aphids, however, spend the whole year on one type of plant, although they may be active for only part of the year.
Some aphids can transmit plant viruses. This is a particular problem on soft fruits, such as strawberry and raspberry, and some vegetables such as tomatoes and plants of the cucumber/marrow family, as well as on some ornamental plants, such as dahlias, lilies, pelargoniums, tulips and sweet peas. Virus-affected plants should be destroyed to prevent the disease being spread to other plants.